One of the most widely dispersed instruments on the planet. Practically every culture has used the drum in ceremony, ritual, and shamanic healing; not to mention all the music avenues from classical orchestras, to jazz, rock, and more. Generally made of wood and animal skin, we find body examples made from human skulls, turtle shells, clay, and metal; to skins from sharks, elephant, goat, elk, snake, and more. Shells can be wide and deep, to hoops and shallow frames. Drumming is used to bring communities together, signal through dense jungle, initiate trance, journeying, and even marching into battle.
The 7 Het Heru (Hathor) High Priestess playing the frame drum.
Nigeria Djembe players
Snake Charmer with drummers in Tunisia.
Early drum kit
Drummers in the Congo
Mapuche (Chile) machis—healers and shamans